One of the most important signs that help diagnose disk malfunctions is the sounds made by the device after power is applied.
In some cases, to accurately determine the nature of the malfunction, it is enough for a specialist to hear the sound made by the disk when it is turned on. This requires a lot of experience and knowledge of the specific features of specific drive models.
Nevertheless, it is possible to roughly determine the nature of the malfunction of the disk simply by comparing the sounds it emits with the samples.
The results of such diagnostics will be indicative, therefore we give only the most common types of malfunctions, excluding from consideration possible, but unlikely breakdowns.
Examples of sounds:
+ Normal
+ Knock
+ Rattle
+ Bzz
Determine which category the sound your drive makes when it is turned on belongs. Then use the table to roughly determine the type of fault.
The more pluses in the cell, the higher the likelihood of a corresponding malfunction.
 Board FirmwareWedge / StickBad blocksHead washed downNormal*+++++ ++ Knock++ ++++++Rattle++ +++Bzz+ +++ Silence++++++ + * It is assumed that the disk is not detected by the computer or is detected incorrectly.

More details:שחזור דיסק קשיח
Normal - high probability of failure of the electronics board, average probability of firmware failure, low probability of electrical damage to the heads. Spindle motor does not stop.Knock - a high probability of failure of the heads, the average probability of the appearance of bad blocks or the appearance of small scratches on the surface, the low probability of failure of the electronics board. The motor spindle stops after a while.Rattle - a high probability of serious mechanical damage on one or several surfaces, the appearance of bad blocks or small scratches on undamaged surfaces. The motor spindle stops after a while.Bzzz - a high probability of sticking heads or jamming of the spindle of the engine. If the heads stick, there is a high probability of bad blocks or small scratches on the surface. The average probability of failure of the heads. Low probability of short circuit or break of one of the motor windings. Low probability of failure of the electronics board. The motor spindle does not rotate.Silence - a high probability of failure of the electronics board, an average probability of a firmware failure and a low probability of electrical damage to the heads. The motor spindle does not rotate.
Supplement to understand what is happening with the diskIn good condition, after power is applied, the firmware is initialized, then a command is issued to start the engine. Starting the engine begins with a short-term sound of a bzz (not always audible), the disk gains operating speed (5400/7200/10000 rpm), then the heads are unpacked and recalibration occurs. Most 3.5 inch drives (“desktop”) have a distinctly audible “trrrrr” sound. There are discs with quiet recalibration, as a rule, these are new 3.5 inch disks and 2.5 inch ("laptop") disks.
After starting the engine and recalibration, if no external commands are given to the disk, the heads are taken to the parking area. In this case, the motor spindle continues to rotate. If the disk does not access for a long time, some models (especially new ones) slow down the rotation of the engine spindle, and after a while stop it altogether.
If the firmware is damaged, the disk may not be detected as a device or it may not be detected correctly, it may not respond to power supply (silence, the motor spindle does not rotate), it may not be read or only part of the data will be returned.
It happens that for some reason the heads are not pulled into the parking area and remain on the working surface (shock, power failure, improper operation of the electronics board). In this case, under the influence of molecular attraction, they adhere to the mirror surface of the plates and further prevent the engine spindle from starting.
When voltage is applied to the motor, a buzz sound is made, but the engine spindle does not start. The disk firmware is trying to restart the spindle over and over again. Simultaneously with starting the motor spindle, the firmware may try to move the heads. To do this, voltage is applied to the head positioner and we hear a repeating short sound of bzz. Some discs perform this procedure once.
Similar sounds are heard when it is not possible to start the engine spindle due to jamming. Most often, jamming of the motor spindle is the result of mechanical shock or severe overheating of the bearing.
In case of failure of the heads and some malfunctions of the electronics board, the device cannot read and interpret servo tags. Because of this, the firmware “does not see” the surface and “does not understand” in what position the heads are. In attempts to find servo tags, the heads move from one extreme position to another and turn around.

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